The evaluation of color and turbidity of the urine is an integral part of the so-called urinalysis. The urinalysis is the collection of a series of routine results of the urine. Today, a urinalysis usually consists of the following tests:
- Evaluation of appearance and possible smell;
- Test strips analysis;
- Examination of the urine under the microscope;
- In case of suspected urinary tract infection can also be carried out on bacteria by a special test, a so-called “bacterial culture”.
When is a urinalysis performed (carried out)?
- As a routine examination at screening (health check);
- On admission to hospital (In being admitted to hospital);
- At suspicion on kidney diseases or disorders of the urinary tract (ureters, bladder, urethra);
- Suffering from inflammation and fever with unknown causes;
- Also in many other diseases, a specific urine test may be useful.
Urine test strip analysis
Various results of multiple urine test strips can provide clues to the cause of turbidity. In any case, a microscopic examination should follow to secure the result:
- Direct evidence
- WBC: detection of white blood cells as a cause of turbidity.
- RBC: detection of red blood cells as a cause of turbidity.
- Nitrite: detection of bacteria as a cause of turbidity.
- Indirect evidence
- pH: low pH (<6) makes urates likely, high pH (» 6) phosphates.
Microscopically, virtually all causes of visible cloudy urine: not only precipitated salts, all possible cells (including bacteria and fungi), but also fats can be detected.
Uric acid and phosphate crystals often appear in fresh urine, if accompanied by more red blood cells in urine, urinary stones (calculi) should be suspected.